Proper referencing involves giving your reader essential information about the sources quoted in your text (cf. Beins 2012: 4). Thus, the reader of your paper or thesis can easily trace back your sources and access them if needed. The APA style is just one of many referencing systems that can be used as a guideline for referencing.
The Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (short: APA) was originally developed for the field of psychology (cf. Madigan et al. 1995: 428). However, it is widely used in other fields of study as well.
Even though the APA style originated in the natural sciences, it is now commonly used in the humanities (cf. Samac et al. 2014: 115).
You should know that the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (APA) provides a detailed guideline to writing academic research papers, addressing all formal requirements. This overview, however, focuses on how to quote in the APA format and does not present the Manual in its entirety (cf. Madigan et al. 1995: 428).
Recommended: Harvard Referencing
Definition: APA Style
A reference using the APA style contains the following components (cf. Beins, 2012, S. 5):
(Author´s surname, publication year, page number)
APA Style in Your Thesis
As you already know, APA style is an author-year-system. To cite properly in APA style, these components are crucial (cf. Beins, 2012, S. 5):
Make sure to stick to the order of elements and the punctuation marks as presented here. If your citation marks the end of a sentence, it must be put before the full stop, as it is part of the quote (cf. Hascher n. d.). For example:
If your citation marks the end of a sentence, it must be placed before the full stop, as it is part of the quote (cf. Hascher n.d.). For example:
Examples: How to quote in APA style in the reference section (cf. Samac et al. 2014: 115f., UCOL 2015 & Szuchman 2005: 105):
Gaddes, W. (1991). Lernstörungen und Hirnfunktionen. Eine neuropsychologische Betrachtung. Berlin: Springer.
Whitney, E., & Rolfes, S. (2011). Understanding nutrition (12th ed.). Australia: Wadsworth Cengage Learning.
Smart, I.M. (1995). Fun with psychology. Green Hill, IL: Green Publishing Co.
APA Style – In-text citation
The following table presents an overview of how to quote in APA style in-text as well as provide full references in the reference list. Make sure you pay attention to the number of authors of each source you would like to quote in your bachelor´s thesis, Master´s thesis, or dissertation as shown below (cf. UCOL (2015), Hascher (n.d.), & Szuchman 2005: 103).
|Number of authors||First citation in the text (text citation)||Subsequent citations in the text (text citation)||Full reference in APA Style (e.g. quoting monographs & journals in APA Style)|
|1-2||(Rogers & Kermit, 1994)||(Rogers & Kermit, 1994)||Rogers, M., & Kermit, F. (1994). Not all sweaters have zippers. Children’s Television Review, 14, 12-30.|
|3-5||(Rogers, McDonald, & Kermit, 2002)||(Rogers et al., 2002)||Rogers, M., McDonald, R., & Kermit, F. (2002). Not all sweaters have zippers. Children’s Television Review, 14, 12-30.|
|6-7||(Elman et al., 2001)||(Elman et al., 2001)||Elman, J. L., Bates, E. A., Johnson, M. H., Karmiloff-Smith, A., Parisi, D., & Plunkett, K. (2001). Rethinking innateness. A connectionist perspective on development (5th ed.). Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press.|
|8+||(Vissing et al., 2004)||(Vissing et al., 2004)||Vissing, K., Brink, M., Lonbro, S., Sorensen, H., Overgaard, K., Danborg, K., ... Aagaard, P. (2008): Muscle adaptations to plyometric vs. resistance training in untrained young men. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 22(6), 1799-1810.|
What is distinct about the APA style is the above categorization which is based on the number of authors of a source. Moreover, the latter also distinguishes the APA style from other citation styles.
The table above shows that the APA style requires you to list all the authors of a source for full reference (in your reference section). Only sources with eight or more authors are treated differently.
The new APA style guidelines (9th ed.) do not require that you indicate the date when you last accessed the online sources being quoted. However, you must provide the last date of access if the contents of a particular website quoted are likely to be edited over time or even deleted.
It is recommended that you check the requirements of the APA style for internet sources you are not sure about (UCOL 2015). The best practice is to be consistent and always provide the date of last access, and not just when in doubt.
Furthermore, if you are unsure about quoting a specific source in APA style, check with your supervisor.
APA Style – Citation in the Reference List
The following table lists the most common and important types of sources you will come across in your bachelor´s thesis. It is important to check the format required by the APA style in order to cite those sources in the reference section below.
If in doubt, you should definitely look things up in the APA style manual. For instance, maybe you would like to quote a rather specific source that is not listed below (cf. e.g. Samac et al. 2014; UCOL 2015). The APA style manual is a detailed guideline that includes rules on how to deal with such special cases.
Recommended: How to cite a book
Where can you find this manual? Every university library should have a number of copies of the APA style manual, as well as manuals for other Style guides. However, the table below provides you with a solid foundation on APA style basics. Moreover, quoting sources which are not among the most common ones as listed here is the exception rather than the rule. The following overview is adapted from Samac et al. (2014), UCOL (2015), Hascher (n. d.) und Carlson (2018):
|Type of source||Citation in the reference section in APA Style||Examples in APA Style|
|Citing a monograph in APA citation style||Surname, First name(s) (year of publication). Title. Subtitle (edition, if applicable). Place of publication: Publisher.||Shotton, M.A. (1989). Computer addiction? A study of computer dependency. London, England: Taylor & Francis.
Whitney, E., & Rolfes, S. (2011): Understanding nutrition (12th ed.). Australia: Wadsworth Cengage Learning.
|Citing an edited volume in APA citation style||Surname, First name(s) (year of publication): Title. Subtitle. In Editors (Eds.), Title of the edited volume (page numbers of chapter). Place of publication: Publisher.
||Haybron, D.M. (2008). Philosophy and the science of subjective well-being. In M. Eid & R. J. Larsen (Eds.), The science of subjective well-being (pp. 17-43). New York, NY: Guilford Press.
|How to cite a journal in APA citation style||Surname, First name (year of publication). Title. Name of the Journal, Volume, page numbers. DOI (digital object identifier)
Note: The volume number must be set in italics, but not the issue number!
|Herbst-Damm, K. L., & Kulik, J. A. (2005). Volunteer support, marital status, and the survival times of terminally ill patients. Health Psychology, 24, 225-229. doi:10.1037/0278-6188.8.131.52|
|Special issue of a journal||Surname, First name (Editors) (year of publication). Title [Thematic issue]. Name of the journal, Volume (Issue number).||Haney, C., & Wiener, R. L. (Eds.). (2004). Capital punishment in the United States [Special Issue]. Psychology, Public Policy, and Law, 10(4).|
|How to cite dissertations & research papers in APA citation style||Surname, First name(s) (year of publication). Title. Subtitle (Doctoral dissertation or Master’s thesis). Name of Institution, Location. OR Retrieved from Name of database. (Accession or Order No.)
Note: Add ‘unpublished’ in the above brackets if the doctoral dissertation you are citing from has not been published yet.
|Adams, R.J. (1973). Building a foundation for evaluation of instruction in higher education and continuing education (Doctoral dissertation). Retrieved from http://www.ohiolink.edu/etd/|
|Citing internet source in APA citation style||If you are quoting internet sources, you should always try to provide as much information as you can:
• Name of the authors/organization
• Date of publication/year when the page was launched (if not available: “n.d.” = no date)
• Title of the document or homepage in italics
• Complete and correct URL
|Simpson, B. (1999). Cartooning and psychology. Hollywood, CA: American Psychological Association. Retrieved March 5, 2001 from the World Wide Web: http://www.apa.org/journals/simpson.html|
(cf. APA manual 2010: 198-204; Hascher o. J.: 7; Samac et al. 2014, 116-122; Szuchman 2005: 106; UCOL 2015: 7,18)
Please note: You should never type the author’s first and middle names, but only use their initials, leaving a space between (cf. Szuchman 2005: 102). Don’t forget that each entry of your reference list in APA style should begin with a hanging indent.
If you would like to quote using APA style, you have to make sure that the first line of each reference is left-justified and all following lines are indented (cf. Beins 2012: 106):
You should never type the author’s first and middle names, but only use their initials leaving a space between (cf. Szuchman 2005: 102). Don’t forget that each entry of your reference list in APA style should begin with a hanging indent.
If you would like to quote using APA style, you have to make sure that the first line of each reference is left-justified and all following lines are indented (cf. Beins 2012: 106).
Citing Literature in Different Languages in APA Style
If you are writing your paper in another language, e.g. German, but you are quoting an English source, the APA style prescribes sticking to the abbreviations used in the source language. For example, Eds. (Editors) remains Eds., Hrsg. (Herausgeber, the German word for editors) remains Hrsg. while quoting using APA style, even if this might not seem very intuitive (and you feel this should be translated). In the same vein, n.d. (no date) and o.J. (ohne Jahr = no year, the German equivalent for n.d.) must remain the way they are when using the APA style (cf. Haddad-Zubel et al. 2014: 66).
Internet Sources in APA Style
Citing internet sources in APA style follows a set of rules. To be on the safe side, you should definitely check what the APA style manual says about a particular source you wish to quote in your text. However, while quoting in APA style you should bear two things in mind (cf. UCOL 2015: 18):
Let’s assume that you used the following internet source and it appears in your reference section as follows:
If you are quoting this source for the first time in your text, you should use the full name as well as providing an acronym:
But from then onwards, you will only have to use the acronym to quote correctly in APA style:
What is Special About an APA Citation?
When using the APA style in a term paper, a bachelor’s thesis, or a master’s thesis you will have to use a reference list instead of a bibliography. The difference between a bibliography and a reference list lies in the sources that make up each list.
Regarding the APA style, you have to provide a reference list—i.e. you only have to list the sources actually quoted in your text. The table below is an overview of the main differences (APA Style 2018) between a reference list for APA style and a bibliography:
|How to quote in APA citation style: Reference list||Bibliography|
|• Sources quoted in the text (direct and indirect quotes)
• Alphabetical order of the author’s surnames (in APA citation style)
|• Sources quoted in the text
• Sources which are part of the literature research but not quoted in the actual text
• The sources come with an annotated description
• A bibliography can either be ordered chronologically or thematically (not alphabetically)
If you have to quote using APA style, the citations in the text follow an author-year-system, just like Harvard referencing. However, the Harvard referencing style requires a reference list which should also contain the sources that were used during the literature research but were not quoted.
In contrast to this, it is sufficient to list the sources cited in the text for APA style (cf. Samac et al. 2014: 115). Using an author-year-system like APA style only requires that the source citations are included in the text as such and do not appear in footnotes (cf. Haddad-Zubel et al. 2009: 62).
Samac et al. (cf. 2014: 15) mention a few characteristics of compiling a reference list that are specific to the APA style. If you are planning to quote using APA style in your thesis, you should check your reference list to make sure it meets the following rules:
- Year of publication and edition are to be put in brackets
- The ampersand (‘&’) is used before the name of the last author in a row of authors
- The title of monographs, journals, or edited volumes must be italicized
- ‘In’ only introduces edited volumes
- ‘[Video]’ must be placed after the year of publication in cases where video material is quoted
- The edition/revised edition number must be put in brackets
- The issue number of a journal must not be put in brackets
Secondary Quotes in APA Style
Drawing on secondary quotes is NEVER ideal, irrespective of whether you are using the APA citation style or any other citation system. You should always try to access the original sources if possible. If you are unable to find or access the original source, you can then insert a secondary quote in APA style, but bear in mind to use these sparingly (cf. UCOL 2015: 11):
Fawcett (as quoted in Polit & Beck, 2008)
Recommended: How to cite an article
You will only have to list the source of the original quote:
Polit, D. F., & Beck, C. T. (2008). Nursing research: Generating and assessing evidence for nursing practice (8th ed.). Philadelphia, PA: Wolters Kluwer Health/Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
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The APA style is the American Psychological Association style. It uses an author-year system of citation to ensure that the sources referenced by a writer can be tracked easily by anybody. It is one of the major referencing and citation styles and is mostly used for Education, Psychology, and Science writings. The complete APA reference list can be found at the end of a piece of writing- there are no footnotes.
The APA format follows the author-year system of in-text citation. This means the author’s last name and the publication year are used in the text. Thereafter, one full reference for each source should be made in the reference list at the end of the research paper. The APA in-text citation style takes the following format: (Author(s) last name, publication year), for example (Howard, 2010).
The APA style is important because it helps give clarity to the contents of a research paper. This in turn, helps the writer organize the sources used in their research for the academic writing project. The readers of the text also have no trouble finding more important information about sources used in the text.
Using the APA citation style for scientific papers like psychology and social sciences is great because it ensures that sources and information in these research papers are presented in a consistent format. This consistent form is particularly useful because the topics covered in the sciences are usually complex and multifaceted. Historically, the APA citation style was designed to standardize the process of scientific writing.
The basic format of APA citation requires an in-text citation and a citation in the reference list, which can be found at the end of a piece of academic writing such as a dissertation. The in-text citation uses the author’s last name and publication year, for example: (Howard, 2010). We have also provided numerous other examples of APA style below.
APA manual (2010). Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
APA Style (2018). American Psychological Association. Bibliography Versus Reference List. Available online: http://www.apastyle.org/learn/quick-guide-on-references.aspx#Bibliography. 30/01/18.
Beins, Bernhard C. (2012). APA Style Simplified: Writing in Psychology, Education, Nursing, and Sociology, Wiley.
Carlson, Alexis (2018). APA Style Guide: Volume/Issue. IRSC Libraries. Available online: http://irsc.libguides.com/apa/volumeissuereferencecitation. 29/01/18.
Haddad-Zubel, Rosita, Philipp Wyrsch, Odilo W. Huber (2009). Kernkompetenzen für das Psychologiestudium: Leitfaden für wissenschaftliches Arbeiten. 2nd revised edition. Wien: Peter Lang.
Hascher, Tina (o. J.). Zitieren nach den Richtlinien der American Psychological Association APA (6th edition). Universität Bern; Institut für Erziehungswissenschaft Abteilung für Schul- und Unterrichtsforschung. Available online: http://www.edu.unibe.ch/unibe/portal/fak_humanwis/philhum_institute/inst_paed/content/e39/e268485/e268367/pane268376/e441386/ ASUZitierrichtlinien_ger.pdf. 28/01/18.
Madigan, Robert, Susan Johnson, Patricia Linton (1995). The Language of Psychology. APA Style as Epistemology. American Psychologist 50(6), 428-436.
Samac, Klaus, Monika Prenner, Herbert Schwetz (2014). Die Bachelorarbeit an Universität und Fachhochschule: Ein Lehr- und Lernbuch zur Gestaltung wissenschaftlicher Arbeiten. 3rd revised Edition. Wien: Facultas Verlags- und Buchhandels-AG.
Szuchman, Leonore T. (2005). Writing With Style – APA Style Made Easy. 3rd edition. Canada: Thomson Wadsworth.
UCOL (UCOL Student Experience Team (SET) Library and Learning Services) (2015). A guide to APA referencing – 6th edition. Available online: http://student.ucol.ac.nz/library/onlineresources/Documents/APA_guide_2015.pdf. 28/01/18.