Reporting Statistics in APA – A Guide With Rules & Examples

Time to read: 6 Minutes
Reporting-statistics-Definition

The APA Publication Manual is also a fantastic tool for reporting research statistics, especially in social and natural sciences. In this post, we will expound on reporting statistics in APA.1

Statistical analysis is the process of collecting and testing quantitative data to make extrapolations about certain elements or the world in general.2

Reporting Statistics in APA – In a Nutshell

  • Statistical analysis is the process of collecting and testing quantitative data to make extrapolations about certain elements or the world in general.
  • The APA Publication Manual provides guidelines and standard suggestions for reporting statistics in APA.
  • The formula for representing statistics in APA differs depending on the type of statistics.

Definition: Reporting statistics in APA

The APA Publication Manual provides guidelines and standard suggestions for formatting and reporting statistics in APA.6
Here are the general rules for reporting statistics in APA:

  • Use words for numbers under ten (1-9) and numerals for ten and over4
  • Use space after commas, variables, and mathematical symbols
  • Round of the decimal points to two places, except for p-values
  • Italicize the symbols and abbreviations, except if you have Greek letters1

Reporting statistics in APA: Statistical results

Below are some basic guidelines for reporting statistics in APA:1

  • Begin by repeating the hypotheses and explain if your statistical results support them before presenting the data
  • Present the results in a condensed format without interpretation
  • Do not go into the tests you used5
  • Every report should relate to the hypothesis

Reporting statistics in APA: Formatting guidelines

This section provides guidelines for presenting test results when reporting statistics in APA.

Stating numbers

The general APA guidelines recommend using words for numbers below ten and numerals for ten and above.

Use numerals for exact numbers before measurement units, equations, percentages, points on a scale, money, ratios, uncommon fractions, and decimals.6

Measuring units

Regarding units of measurement, the rule is to use numerals to report exact measurements.7

Example: Reporting exact measurements

The stone weighed 9 kg.

In reporting statistics in APA, include a space between the abbreviation and the digit to represent units.1

On the other hand, when stating approximate digits, use words to express numbers below ten, then spell out the unit names.

Example: Reporting approximate figures

The stone weighed approximately nine kilograms.

It is worth mentioning that all quantities should be reported in metric units. However, if you recorded them in non-metrical units, include metric equals in your report and the original units.1

Percentages

When using percentages while reporting statistics in APA, use numerals followed by the % symbol.

Reporting statistics in APA example:

Of the participants, 19% disagreed with the statement.

For example:

Nineteen per cent of the participants disagreed with the statement. The percentage of participants was higher in 2021.

Decimal places

The content or information you wish to report will influence the number of decimal places you use.7
However, the general rule for reporting statistics in APA is to round off the numbers while retaining precision.

Here are some stats you can round off to one place when reporting statistics in APA:

Means
Standard deviations
Descriptive statistics based on discrete data

You can round off to two decimal places when reporting:

Correlation coefficient
Proportions and ratios
Inferential statistics like t and f values
Exact p values (more than .001.)

Use a leading zero

The zero before a decimal point when a number is less than one is called the leading zero.7
According to guidelines for reporting statistics in APA, you can only use a leading zero in the following cases:

When the statistic you want to describe is greater than one
Cohen’s d
t-values
f-values
z-values

In contrast, you do not need the leading zero when:

The variables can never be greater than one
P-values
Pearson Correlation Coefficient
Coefficient of determination
Cronbach’s alpha

Mathematical formulas

While reporting statistics in APA, you must provide formulas for new and uncommon equations. If the formulas are short, present them in one line within the main text. For complex equations, you can take more than one line to present them.

Using parenthesis or brackets

While reporting statistics in APA, use round brackets for primary operations (first steps), square brackets for secondary ones(second steps), and then curly brackets for tertiary ones (third steps).

While reporting statistics in APA, you should purpose to avoid nested parentheses if necessary.1

Reporting statistic tests in APA

When reporting statistics in APA, use descriptive statistics as summaries for your data. Below are guidelines for reporting statistics in APA regarding statistical tests.

Descriptive statistics: Means and standard variations

Means and standard deviations should appear in the main text and parentheses (either or both). Regarding statistics relating to the same data, you do not need to repeat the measurement units.1

Example:

The average productivity rate was 124.7 minutes (SD = 12.1).

Chi-square tests

Include the following when reporting Chi-square tests:6

  • Degrees of freedom in the parentheses (df)
  • Chi-square values (X2)
  • P-value

Example:

The chi-square revealed a link between weather and productivity, X2(9) = 21.7, P = .013.

Hypothesis tests

When reporting statistics in APA, reports for t-tests should have:1

  • Z value
  • P value

Example:

Participants scored were higher than the population, z = 3.35, p = .012. (2)

When reporting statistics in APA, reports for p-tests should have:

  • Degrees of freedom in parentheses
  • T-value
  • P-value

Example:

Females experienced more severe symptoms than makes, t(33) = 3.87, p = .007.

Reporting ANOVAs

When reporting statistics in APA, the ANOVA reports should include:2

  • Degrees of freedom in the parentheses
  • F values
  • P values

Example:

We found a statistical significance in the leadership style effect on productivity F(3, 78) = 5.68, P =.018.

Correlations

Correlation reports when reporting statistics in APA should include:5

  • Degrees of freedom in the parentheses
  • R-value
  • P-value

Example:

We found a strong link between the temperature and productivity levels, r(401) =.43, p less than .00.1.

Regressions

Display regression results in a table. However, if you present them in the text, the report should include:8

  • R2value
  • F value
  • Degrees of freedom in the parentheses
  • P value

Example:

GAT Severity scores predicted anxiety levels, R2= .31, F(1, 510) = 6.71, p = .009.

Confidence intervals

When reporting statistics in APA, you have to report the confidence levels. Use parentheses to enclose the lower and upper limits of the confidence interval, separated by a comma.2

Example:

Male participants experienced more positive results than female ones, t(19) = 3.94, p = .007, d= 0.88, 90% CI [0.6, 1.13].

On average, the tests resulted in a 43% increase in positive feelings, 97% CI [21.34, 44.5]

FAQs

Statistical results like proportions, measurements, ranges, percentages, and others that describe samples can be reported in APA format.

The formula differs depending on the type of statistics.1

You need the p-value, t-value, freedom degrees, and course of effect.

Depending on the statistical data, you can use one or two decimal places.6

Sources

1 Darling, Nancy. “Reporting Statistics in APA Style.” psychology today. April 21, 2017. https://www.psychologytoday.com/us/blog/thinking-about-kids/201704/reporting-statistics-in-apa-style.

2 shengdongzhao. “How to report statistics in APA format.” June 24, 2020. https://www.shengdongzhao.com/?p=1501.

3 Glen, Stephanie. “Reporting Statistics APA Style.” statisticshowto. Accessed on December, 19 2022. https://www.statisticshowto.com/probability-and-statistics/reporting-statistics-apa-style/.

4 purdueuniversity. “Statistics in APA.” Accessed on December 19, 2022. https://owl.purdue.edu/owl/research_and_citation/apa6_style/apa_formatting_and_style_guide/statistics_in_apa.html.

5 purdueuniversity. “Numbers & Statistics.” Accessed on December 19, 2022. https://owl.purdue.edu/owl/research_and_citation/apa_style/apa_formatting_and_style_guide/apa_numbers_statistics.html.

6 Justin. “Reporting Statistics in APA Format.” statisticsolutions. Accessed on December 19, 2022. https://www.statisticssolutions.com/reporting-statistics-in-apa-format/ .

7 psychologywritingcenter. “Reporting Results of Common Statistical Tests in APA Format.” Accessed on December 19, 2022. https://psych.uw.edu/storage/writing_center/stats.pdf.

8 Kahn, Jef. “Reporting Statistics in APA Style.” illinoisstateuniversity. May 28, 2022. https://about.illinoisstate.edu/jhkahn/apastats/ .