Definition: Referencing Styles
Referencing styles are a set of rules that tell you how you should acknowledge the intellectual works of people that you use in your research. Referencing is an important part of successful academic writing. It helps you to avoid plagiarism while doing your assignments. Referencing contains two crucial elements:
• An in-text citation
• An entry in the reference list at the end of your assignment
The citation will contain enough details for the reader to identify the source listed in the reference list. In most cases, this is the name of the author and the year when the source of your data was published. The reference list is usually alphabetized according to the authors’ names. Other details in the reference list are the name of the author, year of publication, and the title of your source.
Referencing styles – FAQ
|What are the different styles of referencing?||There exist different referencing styles, which lead to different formats for information. Referencing is a method of giving credit to people for their intellectual work that you use to support any research you conduct. It can also be used to locate sources and fight plagiarism. Referencing styles dictate the information needed for the citation and how it is ordered, including punctuation.
There are many citation styles but these are the most common:
• APA (American Psychological Association)
This style is used by Psychology, Sciences, and Education
• MLA (Modern Language Association)
The style is used by Humanities
The style is mainly used by History, Business, and Fine Arts
|Which citation style is the easiest?||There is no easy or simple style. Besides that, you will usually not have a say in the matter. You have to use the style dictated to you by your professor. With use, each style can become quite easy to use.|
|What is APA and MLA style of reference?||Both APA and MLA are common referencing styles. They both adhere to the legible 12-point font; double spaced pages, and 1-inch margins on both sides. In APA, the paper has four parts: title page, abstract, main body, and the references. In MLA, there is no separate title page or abstract. MLA usually has two main parts: the body and works cited page.|
Referencing styles: author-year systems
The author-year citation system is used mainly in undergraduate assignments than in graduate ones. Fields with ties to the liberal arts like human development, political science, and geography tend to favor using this system. When using this system, your job is to indicated inside the text in parentheses, the author and the year when they published the material you cited. Since citation becomes part of the sentence, punctuation comes after the parentheses.
Most writers will acknowledge the source as soon as they start the reference, including the name of the author inside the text. Only the year is placed in parentheses. Many writers identify the source as soon as they begin the reference, including the author’s name directly in the text and supplying only the year in parentheses. If you use more than one source by the same author in the same year, you can differentiate the documents you cite by using the “a,b,c” system, which is an identifying letter after the year of publication.
Citation styles: APA
APA is one of the most common citation styles in academic work. The American Psychological Associations developed it. It is one of the citation styles, which use the author-date system.
Sources are cited in two ways: inserting a short citation inside the text and a full citation in the References list.
The in-text citation will contain the name of the author and the year it was published inserted at the right point in your text.
John (1997) suggests that…
A discussion on the data analysis (John, 1997)
When you paraphrase or refer to an idea by someone else, you should provide a page or paragraph number, especially when it can help the reader locate the passaged used. (p. 134)
Direct quotes in-text:
The page number will always be included in the text for direct quotes. (John, 1997, p.34)
Direct quotes of 40 words and lower need to be typed with text surrounded by double quotation marks.
Using images in your assignment has a major impact, but you must determine if they serve the right purpose. “The use of images needs to be carefully assessed to ensure they have the right impact” (John, 1999 p. 127)
Direct quotes exceeding 40 words have to be included in their own paragraph with an indentation form the left margin while avoiding the quotation marks.
References have to be at the end of the paper
The reference list contains information about the sources including the author, date, of publication, title, place of publication, publisher, and can include other details, depending on the source.
The reference list is found in a separate page and is arranged alphabetically using the last name of the author.
Reference lists are double spaced with the second and subsequent lines of every reference indented. Only use references that were used in creating the paper. The title of your reference list labeled ‘References’ must be centered.
Referencing styles: Harvard style
Another one of the common referencing styles is Harvard style. Like other referencing styles, it contains two essential elements: the in-text citation and the reference list.
Harvard is one of the citation styles that use the author-date system. Thus, the intent citation will contain the name of the author and when the source was published.
In this style, there is no punctuation between the surname of the author and year of publication. If you quote directly, you must include the page name of the passage or quote in the in-text citation.
It has been asserted that “the aim of management is to utilize and allocate the resources of an organization in a manner that helps the organization reach its goals” (John et. al. 1998, p. 176)
If you wish to cite data cited by someone else, you have to refer to the source of your information and not the original source.
Jane read an article by Alex John in the American Library Journal in which sites to statement made by Tom Marks on his site at http://examplesite. Jane wants to refer to a statement by Marks in her work. Jane will acknowledge Marks but reference it to her source where she got the information. She would thus write: (Marks, cited in John 2007)
In the reference list, Jane will write a reference to the article by John since that is where she got her data. There reference list entry will be: John, A 200, “Example Title” The American Library Journal, vol. 45 no. 4, pp. 345-367.
If more than one work from different authors is cited in the text, a semi-colon will separate them: (John 2008; Marcus 1995)
When citing work by two or three authors, the names are cited in the order in which they appear in the title page: (John, Marchs & Miller 1994)
When quoting block text of more than 30 words, the quote needs to be slightly smaller in font size and indented from the left side to distinguish it from other text. An in-text citation can then follow.
Citation styles: Chicago style
This is one of the most common referencing styles in History since it uses endnotes besides a bibliography to emphasize the sources of data, which is important in historiography. At its most basic, there is a number assigned to a fact in the text and footnote with the corresponding number at the bottom of the page, which will list the source of text.
At the end of your paper, you will have a bibliography that lists authors alphabetically by the surname showing all the sources cited in the paper and works, which were consulted but not cited directly. No page numbers are given in the bibliography. For the location of articles, the beginning and end number of the article or chapter are given instead. Elements are separated using commas in the endnote, whereas periods are used to separate elements in the bibliography.
MLA citation style
MLA is one of the most common referencing styles used in papers to cite sources in humanities and liberal arts. This style uses a two-part system.
• In-text citations
• Works cited list
In-text citations are short citation in parentheses within the essay text.
The Works Cited is a list that follows up these references with more details about the sources. They are listed alphabetically. The list includes the primary and secondary texts used in writing the assignment. These entries must correspond to works cited in the text. All titles of books, films, artwork, and plays have to be in italics. The titles of articles, chapters, essays, and poems must in quotation marks without italics.
Referencing Styles: Comparison
|Citation Styles||MLA||APA||Chicago: Author-Date||Harvard style|
|Disciplines common in||Humanities, English||Nursing, Psychology, social sciences, education||Sciences||Undergraduate programs|
|Privileges||Author: The person who wrote the text matters the most. Thus, an author’s full name has to be included in the work cited entries and the first time the author has been mentioned inside the text||Date: The year text was written matters the most. Thus, dates have to be included in the text and listed as second in the reference list||Author and date: Both the dates and authors’ full names are included||Author and Date: The name of the author and the date must be included|
The author’s last name and page number
The last name of the author, date, p. page number
(John, 1995, p. 243)
The last name of the author, the date, and page number
(John 1995, 234)
The last name of the author, year of publication
|End-of-text citation||Works cited|
Just like APA but using MLA author name and capitalization rules
|Last name of the author, initial of the first name. (year of publication
John, A. (2008)
In a nutshell
In summary, no matter which style you use:
• Consistency is key – various variations of each style exist but you must be consistent at all times
• Two styles may not be used in the same work
• Always follow the style your professor requests no matter your discipline
• Ensure that you use genuine sources at all times
• If you did not use a source, do not quote it in-text or in the reference list