Turabian Style – Introduction to this Citation Style

04.05.23 Chicago style overview Time to read: 6min

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Turabian style is a version of the Chicago style designed specifically for researchers and students. It is applied in academic research papers, dissertations, and theses.

Read on to learn more about Turabian style guidelines.

In a Nutshell: Turabian Style

  • Turabian style is a version of the Chicago citation style designed specifically for academic writing. It prioritizes the needs of students.
  • Turabian and Chicago styles are often used interchangeably. However, the two citation styles differ in minor ways.
  • Turabian style offers a choice between two citation styles: Author-date and notes and bibliography.

Definition: Turabian style

Turabian style is a citation format established and published by Kate L. Turabian in 1937. The latest edition of the Turabian style citation manual was published in 2018.

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Turabian style vs. Chicago style

There are numerous comparisons between Chicago and Turabian styles. However, a key difference is that the Chicago style is aimed at publishers, while the Turabian style is aimed at students. Also, the Turabian style offers greater detail regarding specific formats for citation.

Citations in Turabian style

There are two citation styles in Turabian style: Author-date and notes and bibliography.

  • The notes and bibliography citation feature footnotes and endnotes. These notes are accompanied by a bibliography or an annotated bibliography listing all sources at the end in full.
  • The author-date style features in-text citations in brackets. They are accompanied by a list containing all the sources at the end of the paper.

Turabian style: Notes and bibliography

This Turabian style citation format features two key parts. The first part is the Chicago Style footnotes, which appear within the text. The second part is the Chicago Style bibliography entry.

Footnotes and endnotes

In-text citations appear in footnotes or endnotes. Footnotes are written at the bottom of the page, while endnotes appear at the end of the paper. The first citation for every source must give full information. However, subsequent ones of the same source can be shortened for convenience.

Each note features an identifying superscript number after the clause or sentence it relates to. You are not allowed to use a mix of footnotes and endnotes.

Example: Turabian style footnote citation

Turabian-style-footnote-citation

Bibliography

A bibliography contains a list of full information on all the sources cited in your paper. It is usually written at the end of a text. All bibliography citation entries contain alphabetized last names of the authors.

Furthermore, each source in the bibliography must appear on a new line. The lines apply the hanging indent style where a single source goes beyond a single line.

Example: Turabian style bibliography citation

Turabian-style-bibliography-citation

Citation examples

Turabian style bibliography citation:

Author’s last name, first name. Book Title: subtitle. Publication place: Publisher, year.

Example

Minhaj, Jimmy, The Dos and Don’ts of Grammar and Votaxiulary: Language Rules. Los Angeles: Vintage 2001, 415.

Full note:

Author’s first name last name, Book Title: Subtitle (publication place: publisher, year), page number(s).

Example

Jimmy Minhaj, The Dos and Don’ts of Grammar and Votaxiulary: Language Rules (Los Angeles: Vintage 2001), 415.

Short note:

Author’s last name, shortened book title, and page number(s).

Example

Minhaj, Jimmy, The Dos and Don’ts of Grammar and Votaxiulary: Language Rules. Los Angeles: Vintage 2001, 415.

Turabian style bibliography citation:

Author’s last name, first name. Chapter Title.” In Book Title: subtitle, edited by Editor first name last name, page range. Publication place: publisher, year.

Example

Goody, Addams. “Cultural traditions.” In The Cultural Philosophies of Jadeworth, edited by Karl Copeland and Mark Andrews, 112-119. New York: New York University Press, 2001.

Full note:

Author’s first name last name, “Chapter Title,” In Book Title: Subtitle, ed. Editor’s first name last name (publication place: publisher, year), page number(s).

Example

Goody, Addams. “Cultural traditions.” In The Cultural Philosophies of Jadeworth, 1st ed., edited by Karl Copeland and Mark Andrews (New York: New York University Press, 2001), 112-119.

Short note:

Author’s last name, “shortened chapter title,” page number(s).

Example

Addams, “Cultural philosophies,” 112.

Turabian style bibliography citation:

Author’s last name, first name. “Article Title.” Journal Name Volume, no. Issue (Month or season year): Page range. DOI or URL.

Example

Grant, Anna. “Philosophy and psychology: Tracing the origins and differences.” History and Origin 90, no 2 (Summer 2013): 111-120. https://doiorg.10.10019/12.

Full note:

Author’s first name last name, “Article Title,” Journal Name Volume, no. Issue (Month or Season Year): Page number(s).DOI/URL.

Example

Anna Grant, “Philosophy and psychology: Tracing the origins and differences,” History and Origin 90, no 2 (Summer 2013): 111. https://doiorg.10.10019/12.

Short note:

Author’s last name, “shortened title,” page number(s).

Example

Grant, “Philosophy vs. psychology.” 111.

Turabian style bibliography citation:

Author’s last name, first name. “Page Title.” Website Name. Month Day, Year. URL.

Example

Johnson, Page, “How to Write a Formal Letter.” Dailyorg. May 24, 2019. https://www.dailyorg.com/letter/.

Full note:

Author’s first name, last name, “Page Title,” Website name, Month Day, Year, URL.

Example

Johnson, Page, “How to Write an Informal Letter,” Dailyorg, May 24, 2019, https://www.dailyorg.com/letter/.

Short note:

Author’s last name, “Shortened page title.”

Example

Johnson, “Informal letter writing.”

Turabian style: Author-date

In Turabian style, the author-date style features a short in-text citation in parenthetical form. It must correspond with the reference entry list.

In-text citations

The in-text citations contain the author’s last name, publication year, and page number. The citation appears at the end of the clause before the closing punctuation.

Example: Author-date in-text citation

Turabian-style-author-date-in-text-citation

References list

The reference list contains full information on all the cited sources. It appears in a formula similar to the bibliography. However, the year comes after the author’s name for easy cross-referencing with in-text citations.

Example: Reference list

Turabian-style-references-list

Citation examples

Turabian style author-date format:

Author’s last name, first name. Year. Book Title: Subtitle. Publication place: Publisher.

Reference entry:

Jonnes, May. 2021. How to Forge a Card. Cambridge: Pub.

Author-date:

(Jones 2021, 419)

Turabian style author-date format:

Author’s last name, first name, Year. Chapter Title.” In Book Title: Subtitle, edited by Editor’s first name last name, Page range. Publication place: Publisher.

Reference entry:

Jones, Jim. 2021. “Forging: Forging a Card.” Forgery Mystery, 111-119, Cambridge, Cam University Press.

Author-date:

(Jones 2021, 119)

Turabian style author-date format:

Author’s last name, first name. Year. “Article Title.” Journal Name Volume, no. Issue (Month or Season): Page Range. DOI or URL.

Reference entry:

Jones, Jim. 2021. “Forging: Forging a Card.” Forgery Mystery 90, no 1. (Winter): 111-119. https://www.daily.org/academic/.

Author-date:

(Jones 2021, 118)

Turabian style author-date format:

Author’s last name, first name. Year. “Page Title.” Website Name. Month Day, Year. URL.

Reference entry:

Jones, Jim. 2013. “How to Forge a Card.” Daily. March 20, 2013. https://www.daily.org/academic/.

Author-date:

(Jones 2013)

Turabian style: Formatting guidelines

Here are Turabian style formatting guidelines:

  • Use 12 pt. Times New Roman font
  • Double-spacing for text
  • 1-inch or larger margins
  • Half-inch indent for new paragraphs
  • Top-right or bottom-center numbering
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FAQs

Chicago style applies mostly to publishers, while the Turabian style is designed primarily for students.

This format requires the use of the 12 pt. Times New Roman font. You also have to double-space your text and use margins of at least 1 inch.

There are two styles:

  • Author-date,
  • Notes and bibliography

The guidelines for each style are different.

The notes and bibliography citation feature footnotes and endnotes. These notes are accompanied by a bibliography or an annotated bibliography listing all sources at the end in full.

In contrast, the author-date style features in-text citations in brackets, accompanied by a list containing all the sources at the end of the paper.