Tenses – A Guide to Using Tenses in Academic Writing

26.09.22 Tenses Time to read: 5min

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Adherence to the correct tenses is essential in academic writing, directly impacting its conciseness, clarity, and readability. At times, deciding on the appropriate tense could be somewhat perplexing, entailing a careful application of language rules. Yet, the situation is not as complex as it may initially seem. As indicated by Cambridge University Press, the majority of students will only need a handful of tenses to express their ideas effectively, once they grasp the associated language rules.

Tenses – In a Nutshell

Certain verb tenses are suitable for specific situations. Here are some main takeaway points:

  • Three verb tenses will suit the majority of your academic writing needs.
  • Each tense can be used when addressing specific scenarios.
  • Using the correct tense can help to convey insight and clarity.
  • Do not hesitate to refer back to this article for future reference.

Definition: Tenses

Verbs alert the reader that a specific action is occurring or has occurred. However, these very same vehicles illustrate slightly more when found within an academic paper.

Tenses are often employed to display how the author feels about the subject being reported. They may also be leveraged to demonstrate the chronology of specific events.

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Most commonly used tenses in academic writing

Three tenses are commonly used in academic writing: the present simple, the past simple, and the present perfect. The following paragraphs introduce the functions as well as give examples.


The present simple

Often considered to be the most common tense, the present simple serves several functions:

  1. To emphasize the primary focus of the article.
  2. To reinforce what is presently known about a topic.
  3. To make general observations and statements.
  4. To reference previous papers as well as current tables and figures.


  1. This study highlights the effects of climate change.
  2. Research indicates that a gender pay gap exists.
  3. Scholars agree that professional careers are regarded as the best way to earn more money.
  4. This chart presents the results from prior control groups.

The past simple

Let us now examine when the past simple can be used as well as some examples:

  1. Reporting findings from a previous study where the author is named.
  2. Discuss what methods and/or data were utilized.
  3. Highlighting the results of ongoing research.
  4. Emphasizing that an event occurred in the past.


  1. Smith et al. found that the initial results were spurious.
  2. Quantitative analyses were employed.
  3. Our team implemented a double-blind study.
  4. The subjects had to report back weekly.

The present perfect

Let’s finally discuss the present perfect tense, as well as when it is most often used.

  1. When introducing new subject matter.
  2. Generally summarizing what has already taken place.
  3. Citing prior findings without mentioning other authors.
  4. Making connections between the past and the present.


  1. An impressive body of research has shown.
  2. Prior findings have been illustrated.
  3. Others have discovered.
  4. Previous research has indicated a relationship.
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Tenses used in different sections of a paper

A scientific paper is made up of different sections, like the abstract or methodology. Each of these requires a certain tense. The following segments will state and explain which tense is used in which component.

Tenses in the abstract

Most experts agree that the present simple tense is best utilized within the abstract. This is a clear way to state facts and highlight the subsequent results.

Tenses in the introduction

Introductions are normally used to present background details as well as information that is already assumed to be valid. Therefore, both the present perfect and the present simple tense can be used.


  • Depression correlates with weight gain.
  • Research indicates that a relationship exists.


  • Present perfect: Research has shown that mutations protect plants against certain illnesses.
  • Present simple: Our study shows that confirmation bias exists.

Tenses in the theoretical framework

Theoretical frameworks are intended to reinforce an existing theory, as well as why the issue in question exists. Therefore, the majority of the information should be addressed with the present simple or the present perfect.


  • Present perfect: Prior research has uncovered
  • Present simple: The table below presents details…

Tenses in the methodology and results section

The methodology of the study and the results will always occur before a conclusion is reached. Therefore, it is best to employ the past simple tense.


  • Our team established specific parameters…
  • The subsequent studies correlated with…
  • The results seemed to reinforce…

Tenses in the conclusion

In many cases, a combination of past and present tense verbs can be used when presenting a conclusion (depending upon what is being discussed).

Tenses in the litreature review

As litreature reviews discuss and interpret previous findings, the past simple tense is often the best choice.


  • Past simple: Our research indicated
  • Present perfect: These results have shown that…
  • Present simple: Ultimately, evidence indicates that…


  • In his groundbreaking study, Smith et al. found that…
  • Longitudinal analyses confirmed that…
  • Exploratory research coincided with our ultimate findings.


Three verb tenses represent the lion’s share of those utilized within an academic paper. The most common tenses are:

  • Present simple
  • Past simple
  • Past perfect

One of the main reasons behind this approach involves clarity. Superfluous text can be confusing to the reader, and it may even detract from the subject material being presented. Simplifying verb conjugations will also free up space for additional information.

There are certain times when other tenses can be used.

One example may occur if the writer wishes to convey the importance of a prediction or possible event. In this case, the future simple tense (the results will show…) may be employed.

Three popular options include:

  • Grammarly
  • ProWritingAid
  • Grammarcheque.me

Note that each of these provides free demonstration versions.


Lisa Neumann

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About the author

Lisa Neumann is studying marketing management dual at IU Nuremberg and working towards a bachelor's degree. She has already gained practical experience and regularly writes scientific papers during her studies. For these reasons, Lisa is a perfect fit as a BachelorPrint employee. In this role, she emphasizes the importance of high-quality content and wants to help students navigate their stressful lives. Being a student herself, she knows what matters and what is important.

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